Saturday, 14 January 2017

ENG: Learn to understand spoken Danish - despite reduction

Reduction blurs the pronunciation

It is a fact that spoken Danish has changed markedly during the 20th century. Danish people tend to omit more and more syllables or sounds when they are not stressed or when they have a position at the end of a word. Linguists call this phenomenon reduction and it gradually distances Danish from the other two Scandinavian languages. Apparently, you do not have to go further back than the 1960s to find movies where the language sounds more typically Scandinavian than today.

Sometimes the pronunciation of words actually merges. For example, in modern Danish there is no difference between doctors læger (plural) and a teacher lærer (singular). Both words are pronounced lääå [ˈlæ:ɔ].

Do not despair

It is easy to despair but there is help: the reductions in Danish follow certain rules. Here is a presentation of those I consider most important.

The ending -a became an -e and was often then lost

That a short /e/ in an unstressed position results in a sound similar to that of Swedish /ö/ (more correctly [ə]) is a phenomenon which exists in many languages. Phoneticians call this short neutral vowel schwa.

Like in Danish, in Norwegian the old Scandinavian ending -a has evolved to an -e, but that is also how it is pronounced. By contrast, in Danish it has been reduced to schwa, affecting, among other things the basic form (infinitive) of all verbs. This is why tell tale is pronounced tälö [ˈtˢæ:lə].

In some cases, it has gone so far that the ending is not pronounced at all. With the word chin hage serving as an example, one can imagine how the evolution has occurred in stages: haka (like in Swedish) – hagö – häjö – häö - hää. When the speaker retains a suffix, modern pronunciation will be hääö [ˈhæ:ə], but many Danes pronounce this word Danes hää [ˈhæ:].

Alternatively: the ending -a became an –e, but was then assimilated

In Danish, the above mentioned schwa is so weak that, when it appears after another vowel, many speakers completely drop its original quality. We say that the sound is assimilated (adapted).

That is why the word for a living room stue (compare with stuga in Swedish) can be pronounced stuu [ˈsd̥uːu] and girl pige may sound like pii [ˈpʰiːi].

When /r/ becomes a vowel

Some Swedes cannot stop complaining about the Danish (and southern Swedish!) guttural /r/. However, they will rapidly start appreciating it, in case they want to learn to understand spoken Danish. For most Swedes, it is a far more odd phenomenon that the Danish /r/ has often turned into something very similar to a vowel; a so called vokoid. In combination with an anterior vowel this vokoid forms a diphthong. This, among other things, affects the in all Scandinavian languages highly common ending -er. The word for churches kirker is a good example because here we have two vokoid r-sounds. It is pronounced kiökö [ˈkʰiɔkʰəɔ].

Among Swedish dialects something similar can be observed around my hometown of Halmstad. Like in Danish, in these positions the r-sounds are replaced with diphthongs. Hence, we pronounce kyrkor (churches) kyökoö [ˈɕyːəkuːə].

One of two consonants is dropped

In many Danish words you will hear how letter combinations like -ld- and -nd- are simplified to one single sound; -ll- and -nn- respectively. As a consequence the verb want vilje and the plural of the adjective wild vilde are pronounced ville [ˈvilə].

Copenhagen Dialect instead of Standard Danish

In all honesty, reduction occurs in Swedish and Norwegian as well, but the Danish language lacks the counterforce which we have in Standard Swedish (rikssvenska) and Standard East Norwegian (standard østnorsk/ norsk standardtalemål), respectively. Standard Danish (rigsdansk) is no longer promoted by the media and therefore tends to be pushed out by the contemporary Copenhagen dialect. Here, unstressed syllables disappear to an even greater extent than elsewhere. This means that most of us Swedes base or picture of Danish on one of its most unclear dialect.  If people in Copenhagen say something which we perceive as Ka du gi m n ka, it is difficult for a Swede to understand that they are actually saying "Kan du give mig en kage?" The verb can kan is pronounced in exactly the same way as the desired cake, kage.

The written language as a bridge

If you want to learn to "hear" which word might hide behind the reduction, I would recommend you to read Danish regularly. This is probably why Norwegians are generally better at understanding our neighbour language than we Swedes - their written language bokmål is much more similar to Danish than written Swedish is.

A Swede will obviously feel confused, if they perceive uu [ˈuːu] where they expects to hear the word week (vecka in Swedish). Now, if you know that this word is written uge in Danish (uke in Norwegian Bokmål) it all becomes much easier.

In later articles we will immerse into the Danish vowel and consonant sounds. However, first we will take a closer look at a unique sound phenomenon which have irritated Swedes for centuries: the Danish stød.

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I have never studied Danish at the university, so I warmly welcome all proposals to improve and correct this article.

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Earlier related articles: 

Differences between Danish and Norwegian –Infografic on the Written Languages
Learn to Understand Spoken Danish – an Introduction (part 1) 

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Swedish version 

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Sources: 
Snacka skandinaviska; Lindgren, Birgitta / Havaas, Anitha; Prodicta, 2012; sid. 24. 
Danska – Grundbog i dansk for studerende ved svenske universiteter; Købmand Petersen, Bjarne; BOD Books on Demand, 2012; sid. 18,-19, 129-137 och 230-235.
Fonetik og fonologi af Ruben Schachtenhaufen, ph.d.
Wikipedia in English: Danish phonology
 

Wednesday, 4 January 2017

ENG: German book tips: The Tin Drum by Günter Grass

https://www.instagram.com/p/BOxBGMBA0c7/?taken-by=erikwirdheim
It has honestly taken me several months, but now I have finished the reading of The Tin Drum (Die Blecktrommel) by Günter Grass. To my defense, it should be said that I only read the book during short tram trips in Zurich; from Belvoir Park to Stockerstrasse and that is only four stops in each direction.

The plot will be well-known to most of you, not least thanks to the film from 1979. The book is written down when the protagonist Oskar is in a mental hospital, but presents his full life from his childhood in the German Free City of Danzig before and during World War II through his later move to postwar Dusseldorf. Oskar has a very different perspective on life, since he stopped growing when he was three years old. Despite this, he manages relatively well throughout the destiny of his family, above all thanks to his innate ability to make glass crack with his voice and the sense of rhythm which he developes through years of playing toy tin drums.

To read The Tin Drum in the original German language was a bit of a challenge. Some of Grass’ sentences are extremely long (see example below). The novel contains comments which are written in local German dialect or in German with a Polish accent. The protagonist interchangeably refers to himself either as I or as Oskar - sometimes he even changes in the middle of a sentence. Apart from this, the story is anything but straight forward. Oskar tends to repeat and further elaborate on what has already been told and thus makes you unsure of what really happened back then, and what is an afterthought.

Having said that, it should be emphasized that I never had to take the help of dictionaries. The book is consistently very funny and also interesting from a historical perspective, especially for those of us who care about the relationship between Germans and Poles. If you - like me – on top that are interested in the history of the Polish city of Gdańsk, the first parts are like a goldmine. Here we get the chance to travel on the old tram lines, go swimming in wartime Sopot and experience both city architecture as well as landscapes in the surrounding countryside with its Kashubian culture.

Some of the episodes will probably stick in my memory forever. Here we find Oskar's childhood memories about the safety he used to feel (and the odor he used to smell!) while hiding under his grandmother's skirts, and how he probably contributed to the death of both men, whom he could consider to be his fathers. Among his memories as an adult, his utterly failed attempts to approach his neighbour, the nurse Dorothea, will aslo stay with me.

It deserves to be mentioned that The Tin Drum is included in the list of the Best German Novels of the 20th Century. The book is the first part of Grass’ so called Danzig trilogy, which also includes Cat and Mouse and Dog Years.

Günter Grass (1927-2015) was a great personality in the West German post-war debate and, in 1999, he received the Nobel Prize in Literature. When he in 2006, in conjunction with the publication of his autobiography, announced that during World War II - more or less voluntarily – he had joined Waffen-SS, he for obvious reasons, was strongly criticized. It should be stressed that in spite of his revelation, both Poland's former President Lech Wałęsa as today's Polish residents of Gdańsk has allowed him to retain the title of honorary citizen of the city, thanks to his outstanding literature about the old German Free City of Danzig.

In short, I strongly recommend The Tin Drum. It is indeed written in a very special way, but clearly within my limits, although I am anything but a literary scholar.

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Below you will find what I think is the longest sentence of the novel and at the same time a shining example of its rich personal gallery and of how the author sometimes refers to himself as I, sometimes as Oskar:

 ”Der Falter trommelte zwischen Glühbirnen meine Geburtsstunde ein; die Kellertreppe mit ihren neunzehn Stufen trommelte ich und meinen Sturz von der Treppe, als man meinen dritten sagenhafter Geburtstag feierte; den Stundenplan der Pestalozzischule trommelte ich rauf und runter, bestieg mit der Trommel den Stockturm, sass mit der Trommel unter politischen Tribünen, trommelte Aale und Möwen, Teppichklopfen am Karfreitag, sass trommelnd auf dem zum Fussende hin verjüngten Sarg meiner armen Mama, nahm mir dann Herbert Truczinskis narbenreichen Rücken als Trommelvorlage und bemerkte, als ich die Verteidigung der polnischen Post am Heveliusplatz auf einem Blech zusammenschlug, von weit her eine Bewegung am Kopfende jenes Bettes, auf dem ich sass, sah mit halbem Blick den aufgerichteten Klepp, der eine lächerliche Holzflöte unter dem Kopfkissen hervorzog, diese Flöte ansetzte und Töne hervorbrachte, die so süss, so unnatürlich, so meiner Trommel gemäss waren, dass ich ihn auf dem Friedhof Saspe zu Schugger Leo führen konnte, dass ich, als Schugger Leo ausgetantzt hatte, vor ihm, für ihn und mit ihm das Brausepulver meiner ersten Liebe aufschäumen lassen konnte; selbst in den Dschungel der Frau Lina Greff führte ich ihn, liess auch die grosse fünfundsiebenzig Kilo aufwiegende Trommelmaschine des Gemüsehändlers Greff abschnurren, nahm Klepp auf in Bebras Fronttheater, liess Jesus auf meinem Blech laut werden, trommelte Störtebeker und alle Stäuber vom Sprungturm hinunter – und unten sass Luzie -, ich aber erlaubte Ameisen und Russen, meine Trommel zu besetzen, führte ihn aber nicht noch einmal auf den Friedhof Saspe, wo ich die Trommel dem Matzerath nachwarf, sondern schlug mein grosses, nie endendes Thema an: Kaschubische Kartoffeläcker, Oktoberregen drüber, da sitzt meine Grossmutter in ihren vier Röcken; und Oskars Herz drohte zum Stein zu werden, als ich vernahm, wie aus Klepps Flöte der Oktoberregen rieselte, wie Klepps Flöte unter Regen und vier Röcken meinen Grossvater, den Brandstifter Joseph Koljaiczek, aufspürte und wie dieselbe Flöte die Zeugung meiner armen Mama feierte und bewies.” 

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Swedish version

Monday, 2 January 2017

SWE: Tyskt boktips: Blecktrumman av Günter Grass

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Det har i ärlighetens namn tagit mig flera månader, men nu har jag läst klart den: Blecktrumman (Die Blechtrommel) av Günter Grass. Till mitt försvar ska sägas att jag bara har läst boken under korta spårvagnsresor i Zürich; från Belvoir Park till Stockerstrasse, och det är bara fyra hållplatser i vardera riktningen...

Handlingen är väl allmänt känd, inte minst genom filmatiseringen från 1979. Boken tecknas ner när huvudpersonen Oskar sitter på en mentalsjukhus, men besriver hela hans liv från uppväxten i den tyska fristaden Danzig före och under andra världskriget till hans senare flytt till efterkrigstidens Düsseldorf. Oskar har ett mycket annorlunda perspektiv på livet, eftersom han som treåring slutade att växa. Trots detta klarar han sig förhållandevis bra genom familjens alla öden, framför allt tack vare sin medfödda förmåga att spräcka glas med sin röst samt rytmkänslan som han har övat upp på sina många leksaksblecktrummor.

Att läsa Blecktrumman på originalspråket tyska var lite av en utmaning. Vissa av Grass meningar är enormt långa (se exempel nedan). Boken innehåller kommentarer som är skrivna på den lokal tysk dialekt eller på tyska med polsk brytning. Huvudpersonen refererar omväxlande till sig själv som jag eller som Oskar – ibland ändrar han sig mitt i en mening. Upptill detta är berättelsen allt annat än rak. Oskars upprepar sig och utvidgar gärna vad som har hänt tidigare på ett sätt som gör en osäker på vad som verkligen hände då, och vad som är en efterkonstruktion.

Med detta sagt ska det understrykas att jag aldrig behövde ta hjälp av ordböcker. Romanen är genomgående väldigt rolig och samtidigt intressant ur ett historiskt perspektiv, speciellt för oss som bryr oss om relationen mellan tyskar och polacker. Är man dessutom – som jag – intresserad av den numera polska staden Gdańsks historia, är de första delarna av boken en guldgruva. Här får vi resa längs de gamla spårvagnslinjerna, åka och bada i krigstidens Sopot och uppleva både stadsbebygglse och den omkringliggande landsbygden med sin kasjubiska kultur.

Vissa episoder har jag nog lagt till minnet för evigt. Till dessa hör Oskars barndomsminnen om tryggheten (och lukten) när han satt under mormors kjolar samt hur han förmodligen bidrog till att båda de personer, som han kunde se som sina fäder, dödades. Bland hans minnesbilder som vuxen har hans minst sagt misslyckade försök att närma sig sin granne, sjuksköterskan Dorothea, klistrat fast sig.

Det ska i sammanhanget nämnas att Blecktrumman finns med på listan över 1900-talets bästa tyska romaner. Boken utgör den första delen av Grass Danzig-trilogi, vilken också omfattar Katt och Mus samt Hundår.

Om författaren Günter Grass (1927-2015) bör jag tillägga att han var en stor personlighet i den västtyska efterkrigsdebatten och fick Nobelpriset i litteratur år 1999. När han, i samband med utgivningen av sin självbiografi 2006, tillkännagav att han under andra världskriget – mer eller mindre frivilligt - hade ingått i Waffen-SS, blev han av förklarliga skäl starkt kritiserad. Det bör därför betonas att såväl Polens f.d. president Lech Wałęsa som dagens polska invånare i Gdańsk har låtit honom behålla titeln som hedersmedborgare av staden, tack vare hans enastående litteratur om den gamla tyska fristaden Danzig.

Kort sagt: jag rekommenderar varmt Blecktrumman. Den är i sanning väldigt speciellt skriven, men ligger inom mina ramar, trots att jag är allt annat än litteraturvetare.

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Här nedan finner ni vad jag tror är bokens längsta mening och samtidigt ett lysande exempel på det rika persongalleriet samt på hur författaren ibland kallar sig själv för jag och ibland för Oskar:

”Der Falter trommelte zwischen Glühbirnen meine Geburtsstunde ein; die Kellertreppe mit ihren neunzehn Stufen trommelte ich und meinen Sturz von der Treppe, als man meinen dritten sagenhafter Geburtstag feierte; den Stundenplan der Pestalozzischule trommelte ich rauf und runter, bestieg mit der Trommel den Stockturm, sass mit der Trommel unter politischen Tribünen, trommelte Aale und Möwen, Teppichklopfen am Karfreitag, sass trommelnd auf dem zum Fussende hin verjüngten Sarg meiner armen Mama, nahm mir dann Herbert Truczinskis narbenreichen Rücken als Trommelvorlage und bemerkte, als ich die Verteidigung der polnischen Post am Heveliusplatz auf einem Blech zusammenschlug, von weit her eine Bewegung am Kopfende jenes Bettes, auf dem ich sass, sah mit halbem Blick den aufgerichteten Klepp, der eine lächerliche Holzflöte unter dem Kopfkissen hervorzog, diese Flöte ansetzte und Töne hervorbrachte, die so süss, so unnatürlich, so meiner Trommel gemäss waren, dass ich ihn auf dem Friedhof Saspe zu Schugger Leo führen konnte, dass ich, als Schugger Leo ausgetantzt hatte, vor ihm, für ihn und mit ihm das Brausepulver meiner ersten Liebe aufschäumen lassen konnte; selbst in den Dschungel der Frau Lina Greff führte ich ihn, liess auch die grosse fünfundsiebenzig Kilo aufwiegende Trommelmaschine des Gemüsehändlers Greff abschnurren, nahm Klepp auf in Bebras Fronttheater, liess Jesus auf meinem Blech laut werden, trommelte Störtebeker und alle Stäuber vom Sprungturm hinunter – und unten sass Luzie -, ich aber erlaubte Ameisen und Russen, meine Trommel zu besetzen, führte ihn aber nicht noch einmal auf den Friedhof Saspe, wo ich die Trommel dem Matzerath nachwarf, sondern schlug mein grosses, nie endendes Thema an: Kaschubische Kartoffeläcker, Oktoberregen drüber, da sitzt meine Grossmutter in ihren vier Röcken; und Oskars Herz drohte zum Stein zu werden, als ich vernahm, wie aus Klepps Flöte der Oktoberregen rieselte, wie Klepps Flöte unter Regen und vier Röcken meinen Grossvater, den Brandstifter Joseph Koljaiczek, aufspürte und wie dieselbe Flöte die Zeugung meiner armen Mama feierte und bewies.” 

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English version

Thursday, 22 December 2016

ENG: German Movie Tips: Welcome to the Hartmanns'



Finding a comedy which is truly entertaining for the whole family is not easy. Now, I can warmly recommend one in German: Welcome to the Hartmanns' (Willkommen bei den Hartmanns).

In this movie the European Refugee drama sort of moves in with a German family from the upper middle class. Angelika - a retired teacher - feels that she wants to do something and - because the house is so empty since the children moved out - offers to receive a refugee threatened by deportation; Diallo from Nigeria. To this both her husband - an elderly head doctor who refuses to retire - and the couple's adult children react with dismay. They are certainly not xenophobic, but reveal different degrees of confusion and ambivalence, similar to what many of us have gone through in recent years.

It is said that we often find it difficult to feel responsible for anonymous refugee masses, but at the same time want to help individuals, if we only learn to know them a little. When, in the film, Diallo showed pictures of how his home village was burnt down, it was clear that my children empathised with his fate.

The film provides an added value by highlighting tensions also in many everyday questions: How do you find the right partner in life? What may we expect of our partners? How can we be a good parent or spouse? On such questions they native Germans in the film often reply with the comment "Es ist nicht so einfach hier in Deutschland" ("It is not so easy, here in Germany"). That answer would probably fit just as well in Sweden or Switzerland and I think it is quite typical for our times.

In Welcome to the Hartmanns' we see a number of beautiful park and city scenes from Munich. A few actors speak with a certain dialect, but the German language is consistently very easy to understand. All of us (10-45 years) thought so, although none of us has German as his or her mother tongue.

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Welcome to the Hartmanns' premiered in October 2016 and is currently shown in cinemas in Zurich, including Arena Sihl City, where we saw it.

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Find here an article by The Guardian on this movie.

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Swedish version

Sunday, 11 December 2016

SWE: Tips på en tysk film: "Willkommen bei den Hartmanns"



Att hitta en komedi som verkligen är underhållande för hela familjen är inte enkelt. Nu kan jag varmt rekommendera en sådan: Välkommen till familjen Hartmann (Willkommen bei den Hartmanns).

Här flyttar det europeiska flyktingdramat liksom in hos en tysk familj från den övre medelklassen. Angelika – en pensionerad f.d. lärarinna - vill hjälpa till på något sätt och eftersom huset är så tomt sedan barnen har flyttat ut, erbjuder hon sig att ta emot en utvisningshotad flykting - Diallo från Nigeria. På detta reagerar både hennes man - en äldre chefsläkare som vägrar gå i pension – och de vuxna barnen med bestörtning. De är absolut inte främlingsfientliga, men avslöjar i olika hög grad den förvirring och kluvenhet som många av oss har känt under de senaste åren.

Det sägs att vi ofta har svårt att känna ansvar för anonyma flyktingströmmar, men samtidigt vill stötta enskilda individer, om vi så bara lär känna dem lite grand. När Diallo i filmen visade bilder från sin nedbrända hemby var det tydligt att båda mina barn levde sig in i hans öde.

Filmen blir naturligtvis bara bättre av att den belyser spänningar också i många vardagsfrågor: Hur hittar man rätt partner i livet? Vad förväntar man sig av sin partner? Hur är man en bra förälder eller äkta make/-a? På de frågorna reagerar de infödda tyskarna i filmen ofta med kommentaren ”Es ist nicht so einfach hier in Deutschland” (Det är inte så enkelt här i Tyskland). Det svaret skulle sannolikt passa lika bra i Sverige och jag tror att det är typiskt för vår samtid.

I Willkommen bei den Hartmanns ser man en mängd vackra park- och stadsvyer från München. Några få skådespelare talar med viss dialekt, men det tyska språket är genomgående väldigt lättförståeligt. Det tyckte vi alla (10-45 år) trots att ingen av oss har tyska som modersmål.

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Willkommen bei den Harmann hade premiär i oktober 2016 och går just nu på bio i Zürich, bl.a. på Arena Sihl City, där vi såg den.

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English version

Sunday, 2 October 2016

ENG: Learn to Understand Spoken Danish – an Introduction

Let me open up this article series with a revelation: after three years in Switzerland, it is much easier for me to understand Swiss German than Danish. Through my involvement in the Nordic Rowing Club of Zurich, every week I am reminded of this weakness.

Danish feels very difficult although I grew up in Halmstad, a Swedish town with a Danish history where we had access to Danish TV (this was long before the Internet ...).

It might well be that we southern Swedes have less problems than the average person from Stockholm, but is that really an excuse when we are actually embarrassingly weak in our neighbour language?

Therefore, in five articles I will try to make Danish more accessible to those students of Scandinavian languages who already speak Swedish or (possibly) Norwegian. Here is an introduction, thereafter I will take on the topics of reduction, the Danish thrust (stød), as well as the individual vowel and diftong- and consonant sounds.

 

The Difference is Anything but a Small Detail

Let me start by emphasising the obvious. Had a reasonably large part of the Danes pronounced their language as many Norwegians in Oslo speak Norwegian, we would have a completely different language situation in Scandinavia. A major advantage of Standard Eastern Norwegian (standardøstnorsk) - as well as Standard Swedish (rikssvenska) is that the modern pronunciation has largely been adapted to how words are written.

True, there are differences in our Scandinavian written languages but they are very systematic and you can therefore easily learn them. To find a starting point in a spoken language which coincides with the written version clearly facilitates the learning, not least for us adults. Relatively soon, you can then assume the challenges which dialects bring.

Here, however, Danish differs from other the other two Scandinavian languages. In all Danish dialects today’s pronunciation sharply contrasts with the written words. That is anything but a small detail.

 

On the Choice of Phonetic Transcription

That Danish pronunciation is not easy is in my eyes confirmed by the fact that the Danes have created their own onomatopoeic (phonetic) script. It's name is Dania and it is considered better at explaining unique Danish features, such as some /r/- and vowel sounds as well as the thrust (stød). Some people even claim that Dania is more readily comprehensible for those who do not specialise in langugae studies (linguistics).

My own experience is that Dania is not perceived as intuitive, at least not by Swedes. For this reason I choose to use the international phonetic alphabet, IPA, and supplement it with an own attempt to write phonetically, based on Standard Swedish pronunciation. How Danes say otherwise anderledes, I will consequently explain by annålets (IPA: [ˈɑnɔˌleːð̩s]), but do not add the Dania version [ˈαnɹ̩ˌleːḍs].

 

Would a Spelling Reform be a Solution?

There are forces in Denmark who wish to carry out a spelling reform to improve the consistency between the written language and modern Danish pronunciation. Most likely, this would make it easier for Danish children to begin to write. Studies show that these actually need more time to learn the words of their language.

From my perspective – i.e. that of a Swede who wants to learn to understand Danish - this would be disastrous. It would create a huge gap between, on the one hand, Swedish and Norwegian, and, on the other hand, Danish. Danish pronunciation is already a big enough challenge if we want to be able to communicate with each other in Scandinavian. If we lose the written language, only our common language history would remain.

 

An Improved Understanding is Enough!

Admittedly, I originally intended to learn to speak Danish. "You will rapidly make it, since you master so many languages," my friends encouraged me. However, after opening the first textbook I have quickly limited myself. Already the word Danmark reveals why: here are two short /a/ sounds, but pronounced differently. No wonder the country is called Denmark in English and Dänemark in German.

If you aim at speaking Danish flawlessly you must learn these sounds, in many cases word by word.

If you confine yourself to be better at understanding Danish the road to the goal will be considerably shorter. It is here where I want to be of support.

Next there will be an article about a Danish reduction. I hope that you will enjoy the reading.

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I have never studied Danish at the university, so I warmly welcome all proposals to improve and correct this article.

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Earlier related articles: Differences between Danish and Norwegian –Infografic on the Written Languages

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Swedish version - all five articles: Introduktion, Reduktion, Stöd, Vokalljud och Diftonger samt Konsonantljud.

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Sources: